I like to think about Core Protocols as of a way to 'preprogram' people to react to common (possibly unpleasant) situations in a healthier way. What do I mean by that? A lot of the problems in communication occur because of our own perception. Emotions are caused not by the external events that are actually happening but rather by a person's own beliefs, especially irrational beliefs . With Core Protocols you can rewire the circuit by making a team agree on how they are supposed to react when push comes to shove.
A good example is the Check Out protocol. The idea behind it is simple. Any person may leave any activity if they feel that they can't participate anymore. Reasons can be different: not adding value to the activity, tired and falling asleep, too emotionally charged to continue, and so on. Simply leaving the room would offend people because common belief is, it's impolite. Especially so, if a person leaves in frustration. Check Out provides a graceful way out of this. It allows a team to agree: anyone has the right say "I check out" and walk out of the room. So, when this actually happens, everybody knows how to react and that they are not supposed to blame the person and or question their reasons. In exchange, the 'quitter' promises not to make a fuss out of it and commits to rejoining the team as soon as they can. In a sense, by agreeing to use Check Out team members replace the traditional belief (it's impolite) with a new one (it's expected, it's how we communicate).
Another thing that makes Core Protocols so powerful is how they are designed. Each protocol is phrased very carefully. Every phrase tries to nudge towards constructive and concrete results. Let's take Decider and Resolution for example. Together they form a simple voting mechanism. It starts with a person stating a proposal followed by an invitation to vote ("one-two-three"). The voters can choose from "Yes", "No", or "Support It" (there's also an "Absolute No" which is essentially a veto but let's leave it for now). The proposal passes if there are enough "Yes's" and no "No's". If there are "No's" but not too many, they can be resolved with Resolution. The proposer asks the group "What can I do to get you in?" Take a close look at the phrasing. It deliberately directs the possible response to suggesting an improvement or an alternative. It leaves no room for complaining or pointless rambling. Compare it to asking "Why didn't you like my proposal?"